What Will Happen When The Sun Goes Out 2019 DOCUMENTARY
Scientists have long known that the sun will run out of fuel one day — and this documentary aims to show you what will happen next. If there are human descendants still around and in the Solar System at that time, given the lengths of time involved, they will be highly unlikely to be recognizable as human and given that the sun will increase temperature for thousands of years we almost certainly will not be on this planet . But there"s no need to start buying star-death insurance yet. The time scale is long — 7 billion or 8 billion years from now, at least. Humans have been around only about 40-thousandth that amount of time; if the age of the Earth were compressed into a 24-hour day, humans would occupy only the last second, at most.
[Music] [Applause] [Music] when the Sun ceases to exist our glorious Sun the center of the solar system will one day cease to be a giant life-giving ball of flaming gas become an even bigger ball of flaming gas and then wink out of existence entirely approximately 5 billion years from now this Sun will go supernova although none of us must worry about what we"ll be up to when this cataclysmic event occurs it is quite interesting to consider exactly what changes will happen with the death of the Sun why is the Sun going to die anyway the Sun contains multiple types of gases but the main process involves converting hydrogen into helium when all the hydrogen is gone there will be nothing left to fuel its burning existence like a fire on your hearth that turns to nothing when the wood is gone when the Sun runs out of fuel it will undergo some radical changes before disappearing forever one super-powered greenhouse effect in action environmental scientists have been warning us about the greenhouse effect for decades this is a process in which various gases caused by pollution mostly fill up our atmosphere and do not allow the heat from the Sun or the UV radiation to filter back out to space effectively climatologists and other scientists say that this has a lot to do with global warming and more correctly climate change we have enough problems already with the Sun alive and at its current size and strength however the doom and gloom predictions pale in comparison to what will happen when the Sun starts to die currently its stores of hydrogen are being transformed into helium at the usual rate which gives us all the light and heat throughout the solar system and makes life here on earth possible there are many other chemical reactions going on inside the Sun that creates an awful lot of energy in our solar system when the hydrogen runs out or even gets low the Sun will get a lot brighter this increased burn power will start affecting our own atmosphere in very extreme lays the gases that give our world protection from the burning UV rays of the Sun are high up in our atmosphere and consist of carbon dioxide nitrous oxide and methane they"re like a safety blanket that makes it possible for us not to get burned off or radiated as the Sun gets brighter and hotter however these gases will absorb the heat and hold on to it it will be like a super powered electric blanket on a hot summer night things here on earth will get way too hot to handle and plants animals and humans will all die off the water both fresh and salt all around the globe will evaporate and clouds of toxic water vapor will create an even thicker blanket that holds in more heat eventually this cloud shield will evaporate to the oceans will boil and all of life as we know it will cease to exist although life will undoubtedly wither away well before this happens the end result will be a planet that"s completely inhospitable to life our Sun which brings us life now will become the enemy and destroy everything that makes Earth a unique planet in the Solar System and beyond all the horror stories that the environmental scientists have warned us about will come true however it will not be because of using plastic bags or aerosol hairspray when the Sun dies there"s no hope of making changes that could prolong life on Earth of course it might not even exist by that time since this will occur billions of years in the future - massive expansion grown a change in temperature is not the only sign that the Sun is entering the late stages of it"s coming life another symptom of the son"s death involves it getting a lot bigger - our Sun is what"s called a yellow dwarf star in the grand scheme of all stars in the universe it"s relatively small but still quite powerful when it begins to die it will grow larger for a long period of time every star has a life cycle caused by the number of different types of gases inside that can fuel the burning reactions that make them exist in the first place other materials inside a star also affect the way it grows and changes and ultimately fades after being a yellow dwarf star the Sun will become a red giant as the name implies the giant star is much larger than a dwarf star however it"s also relatively cooler instead of a mind-boggling 5,000 to 9,000 degrees Celsius it will only be 2,000 to 3,000 degrees Celsius obviously this is still exceptionally hot as far as stars go however it"s beginning to reach the lower temperature that changes the type of reactions going on inside it beside being super hot the new red giant phase of our Sun will be considerably larger in fact it may grow so large that it burns up Mercury Venus and even earth completely these planets are solid rock at present but the high amounts of heat from the dying Sun will melt them and then tear them fundamentally apart into their chemical compounds scientists estimate that this can occur approximately 5 billion years from today so you don"t have to worry about it very much because the Sun is a yellow dwarf it is a unique type of life cycle that makes it grow larger before it collapses in on itself there are many other different types of stars in the universe red giants do not expand before they die instead they just slowly burn up all their fuel and go out like a spent candle there are also much larger stars called white and blue giants they contain heavier elements that slowly condense at the Stars core all that pressure builds up until the star explodes in what"s called a supernova our Sun will not create an exciting pyrotechnic show as it grows shrinks and cools down at no point will it explode or implode and shoot streams or rings of material across the solar system or galaxies to fuel the beginning of a new star system there will be nobody here to see anyway but perhaps alien beings on a far-off world can watch its lifecycle through their own high-powered telescopes 3 Solar shrinkage the Sun will take a very long time to die and it will change a lot throughout the whole process after getting bigger and swallowing up two or three nearby planets it will start to shrink the materials that make up the Sun will get denser which makes them tighten up and congeal at the core more readily the Sun is not a solid flaming rock after all it"s essentially a giant ball of plasma roiling and burning and held together by gravity at this point when the Sun reaches its largest size all the hydrogen has been transformed into helium now the helium is being transformed in the process of fusion into carbon all the nuclear fuel used in a star"s regular reactions is gone the Sun does not have any way of transforming carbon into another gas so it becomes even cooler and condenses to be a smaller white dwarf a white dwarf maybe as little as half the size of the current Sun it could even be almost as small as the planet Earth itself however these stars are exceptionally dense with a high concentration of materials in a small amount of space although gravity and other scientific principles do not allow a white dwarf to condense any further they still have a lot going on inside this is the period of long convalescence for our nearby star once it achieves white dwarf status the Sun is a lot less energy to fuel its existence it burns slowly and steadily eventually dwindles and turns into a black dwarf which is considered a dead star this is the name given to dead stars by scientists but they"ve not actually found any out there in the cosmos yet in fact the generally accepted idea is that the universe is not existed long enough for stars such as ours to transform completely into a dead star the process could take many billions of years to complete many people have the erroneous idea that all stars go supernova and explode in spectacular fashion spewing energy and matter across outer space we"ve all seen this enough in science and fiction and space related adventure movies some stars do go out this way their iron core condense implode dramatically and release an amazing blast of energy that destroys planets and even nearby stars the result of these implosions is either a dynamic neutron star or a black hole due to its current mass our Sun will not do this at all it"ll just get smaller and denser before it burns itself out the relatively small white dwarf that our current yellow dwarf star will transform into will still be amazingly hot but not hot enough or large enough to sufficiently heat the planet Earth and sustain life for orbiting planets including earth will drift away throughout the whole process of the Sun getting larger and hotter than smaller and cooler it"s gravity will undergo considerable changes as well gravity is based on mass and burning up some elements and turning them into other things the mass of the Sun as it dwindles to a white dwarf its mass reduces and gravity stops working as well as it does today when the star that powers our solar system and holds it all together turns into a red giant there"s no doubt that at least Mercury and Venus will cease to exist they"ll simply get burned off and incorporated into the mass of the Sun despite this addition to its materials the Sun will quickly start to lose mass as it becomes a white dwarf after all its gases are being transformed into energy at a rapid rate it"s possible that the earth also gets burned up during this phase of the sun"s life cycle however due to the reduction in mass the gravitational pull of the Sun is not as strong as it usually is what holds the planets in orbit around the Sun gravity when it doesn"t work so well anymore the planets start to move away with each orbit around the dying star the planets could spiral farther and farther away from it all planets orbit the Sun in giant ellipses shapes instead of circles this means that sometimes the earth is closer to the Sun and sometimes it"s farther away however even without the Sun changing yet the orbit of the earth and other planets is already changing slightly from 2018 to 2019 the change was approximately 1 and 1/2 centimeters the reason for this are varied 1 other planets and objects in the solar system affect Earth"s orbit gravitationally even the particles that the Sun itself spews out constantly hit the planets and give them a little push outside their static orbit paths ever since the Sun came into being it"s burning process has caused it to lose mess when fuel is burned it"s transformed into energy and particles that fly through our solar system since the beginning scientists at NASA estimate that the Sun is lost approximately 0.3% in total this is comparable to the mass of Saturn and all its rings combined or 4.7 million tons that kind of change can affect the orbit of the planets and other things flying through space nevertheless when the Sun starts to change size while it"s dying the shift in orbits will change more drastically although this could keep some of the planets safe from outer space destruction for a while it would also be way too late for humanity or any life on Earth to survive the heat and radiation will kill everything no matter how far away the planets drift from the new larger and hotter Sun five earthlings may go extinct if there are still people living on the earth a few billion years from now they"ll face sure destruction as the Sun dies every single man woman and child will cease to exist every single animal and plant that also live on our home planet at that time will likewise be burned up and destroyed this will occur even if the earth is not consumed during the sun"s red giant phase and drift away to a relatively safer distance there"s no getting out of this one some people may think that humanity may be able to construct some sort of technology that could counter the massive heat and radiation that comes from the dying Sun even if this were possible these subsequent cooling and mass reduction of the Sun would leave Earthlings in a new and very bad position there"s simply no way to both block out all the Rays lights and heat from the Sun while maintaining a livable environment and atmosphere and providing enough energy to grow crops raise animals or even fuel the water cycle without the Sun operating as it does today life as we know it cannot survive it will not just get hot but the atmosphere of Earth will disappear too the chemicals that are broken down from the materials currently here will affect everything from water to the air we breathe to the solid rock beneath our feet yet the heading of this section is earthlings may go extinct instead of massive anti radiation and thermal protective barriers technology that allows us to leave the planet and move elsewhere would be our only hope for survival in a few billion years it"s quite possible that people develop spacecraft that could send us elsewhere in the universe to a new younger star with planets we could colonize both NASA and private companies are pushing to send more spacecraft to Mars and expect to be able to put people up there as early as 2030 as the Sun expands the red planet will move into what"s called the habitable zone this means that water on the surface of the planet could be liquid instead of solid ice or steam the sun"s going to take a long time to change size and shape and we may be able to colonize Mars before it gets too hot itself enzyme the habitable zone will start somewhere around Neptune and may expand out towards icy asteroids beyond Pluto the only other alternative is for what we understand to be the sole high intelligence species in the solar system to go extinct somewhere out there in the galaxy or across the wide stretches of the universe other life-forms may arise or already exist enjoying their own yellow dwarf star until it too dies six new opportunities arise for life elsewhere even if humans and all the plants and animals we know on earth go extinct during the death of our Sun that does not mean that all life will cease to exist in fact the new so-called climate of the solar system may allow for the appearance of life on other planets or the moons that circle them eons ago life appeared on earth because it had the proper mixture of chemicals compounds UV radiation and specifically water all the life that we know of has a basis in carbon when scientists discover that water exists on some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn namely Ganymede and Europa the idea that life could either exist there currently or appear if conditions change somewhat the future is quite an interesting proposition when the Sun expands to its red giant stage it could provide the extra warmth and power to trigger the same type of changes that went into our primordial oceans just like life cycles occur on earth and the long process of evolution changes one organism into another so too can these things create or change life forms on other celestial bodies affected by the Sun this of course is one of the major arguments for the existence of alien life forms throughout the galaxy in the universe astronomers who have a special interest in the idea of an off earth life recognize that there may be other forms of life that are completely different from what we understand life to be there could be beings animals or even single-celled organisms that do not require carbon oxygen or water in any form however they generally accept that life is more likely to exist in what they call a habitable zone within a solar system this is a relatively wideband a certain distance away from the system star that could support organic growth they have studied other star systems and the planets that orbit them some have considerable more planets within the habitable zone than we do here in our own stellar neighborhood this depends on the general positioning of the planets but more specifically the size and mass of the star that they orbit around there"s no real reason why earth has life other than the chance mixture of characteristics that allowed it to form when these characteristics happen on other planets or moons due to the Sun expanding and allowing light and heat to reach them the chance of these same reactions happening there and the same types of evolutionary changes occurring is relatively high seven frozen planets will experience a heat wave it makes logical sense that things closer to a star are warmer because our planets in the solar system are slowly moving away from the Sun as they orbit it at a rate of a centimeter or more per year it seems like they"ll all get colder over time however well the Sun is in the long process of dying its expansion will counter this drift well before the planets can escape its burning zone the effects of the Sun expanding into a red giant will not only create more suitable conditions on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn but will have a similar effect on all planets beyond them in the solar system although the earth will be in a spinnable Mars may grow warmer and give us another option for life if we have sufficiently expanded our technological abilities by that time the smaller planets out beyond Jupiter will warm up too even though its planet status is questionable Pluto is the farthest away body in the solar system to consider way out there beyond all the accepted planets this chunk of frozen rock orbits through space the same as it has for eons it"s average temperature hovers around negative 375 degrees Fahrenheit obviously we cannot even begin to think of anything living there or making use of the planet in any way although Jupiter Saturn and their moons may become appropriately heated for life to exist the farther away planets of Uranus Neptune and Pluto if it"s considered a planet at the time may still be much too cool to support any life as we know it this heat wave may cause some changes for those faraway planets even if they slowly drift farther away from the Sun due to its lower in gravitational mass the so-called habitable zone where life may exist within the solar system may shift to include these outer planets however whatever balmy season they enjoy will end by the time the red giant phase is over and the Sun becomes a white dwarf everything will go back to ridiculously freezing temperatures once more with no great changes of course for Humanity and all I found earth and whatever form it will exist in two to four billion years from now the change will be very big indeed eight the asteroid threat will grow at any given time there are huge numbers of asteroids flying through outer space within our solar system most of them simply fly by without making any changes or influencing any planets or moons occasionally one is on a collision course with another outer space body crashes into it and creates a crater and plume of debris the damage done depends on the size and density of the asteroid and what direction it was flying in the large planets like Jupiter have a considerable gravitational pull that helps attract asteroids to it this protects smaller planets closer to the Sun such as Earth from more regular collisions Jupiter can even boomerang asteroids off into another direction so they leave our solar system without crashing into anything when the Sun starts to die and grows exceptionally massive more asteroids will be able to resist the gravitational pull of Jupiter and hurtled toward the Sun instead this could put them on track to hit Earth the moon or one of the smaller inner planets if they still exist at that time this can create quite a higher amount of threat for the earth itself and the last of the dwindling vestiges of life that cling to it before burning up into oblivion the asteroids themselves however will not be able to survive coming that close within the sun"s atmosphere because it"s much harder in the red giant stage all the external particles of the asteroid will melt or vaporize all that will be left our large dense rocks or dust the inner planets themselves could be torn apart or burned up in such a way that they become asteroids in 2013 astronomers identified a shattered planet with water on its surface orbiting a white star far across the galaxy this provided some evidence of what could potentially happen to Earth during the death cycle of our Sun once the Sun condenses again and becomes a white dwarf the orbits of the outer planets will expand slowly this will also take them out of the path of more asteroids by this time Mercury and Venus will be gone and Earth may be too at the very least it will be a molten ball of rock and metal with its atmosphere burned away when astronomy scientists peered through their telescopes at faraway white dwarf stars they frequently see clouds of dust or crushed rock orbiting them this gives them some indication that asteroids or possibly planets that used to exist were crushed by either hitting into each other or by the gravitational forces of the dying star in the long run the movement of asteroids through the solar system may change quite a bit as the Sun gains and then loses gravitational force the orbiting rocks will end up giving the solar system a much different look than it has with cohesive planets and orbiting moons today [Music] nine humanity could survive elsewhere in the grand scheme of things over the billions and billions of years that it will take for the Sun to go through its death throes people will have a considerable amount of time to prepare and come up with a new plan if humanity has created spacecraft that can travel between planets with life on board the new red giant status of the Sun may afford us more opportunities for colonizing celestial bodies within our own solar system we big-brained humans make incredible strides with technology we"re on the cusp of self-driving cars virtual reality existance artificial intelligence and awesome innovations within the space program with the private sector involved most people believe it will not take that long for us to send people to Mars the current timeline puts people on Mars in the 2030s which is only about ten years away of course Mars is quite close to us compared to some of the large planet moons that could potentially be habitable much of the attention given to the idea of space colonization today focuses on things like resource gathering and power creation everyone"s seen a science fiction movie in which humans had to another planet or moon mined for rare ores or set up some type of massive solar farm these are possible ways that the earth can move forward in a more environmentally friendly way at least another planet could be utilized to save our own for a while the Sun is not going to threaten us directly for an extremely long time however unless certain cataclysmic events occur here there"s no doubt that our space exploration and use of technology will advance in the next billion years if humankind continues on its current path of technological advancement we will absolutely be ready to send people much farther into our solar system although we would have to find a way to preserve the environment of our planet suitable for continuing life as we know it technology could answer that need as well current exploration and investigation have identified multiple giant planet moons that could support life as we know it with a few modifications both gas giants Saturn and Jupiter have a few moons orbiting them that show promising signs for example both Ganymede and Europa have water ice on their surface and Europa has a subterranean ocean when the Sun gets a lot bigger all that ice could melt and create quite an interesting possibility for Humanity to move life as we understand it now needs three things to survive these include water heat and ultraviolet radiation this creates light that helps plants to grow as well although there"s a lot of speculation about terraforming different planets or moons it would be quite exceptional if the sun"s death cycle did all the hard work for us it"s heat and far-reaching UV radiation can make moons like Ganymede and Europa warmer and wetter which can trigger the creation of a more suitable atmosphere 10 the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies become one the death of our Sun will make many things change in the solar system and potentially beyond life will cease to exist asteroids will rain down on whatever planets are left and humanity if it still survives will exist on transform moons or spacecraft with extremely advanced technology although the sun"s death has little to do with the movement of the galaxies it is something that will occur around this time our own Milky Way galaxy in the nearby Andromeda galaxy are flying toward each other through space at extremely high speeds in fact Ronna MERS have measured their velocity at around 400,000 km/h what will happen when the two galaxies finally crash together most galaxies are massive of course and their collision will make quite a lot of changes in other systems and stars that exist within them the reason Gaia satellite has added additional information to the estimations of when this will occur the generally accepted idea now is about 4.5 billion years in the future which coincides closely to the death of the Sun the satellite is given unprecedented amounts of measurements and distracts star movements in both galaxies as well as the smaller Triangulum galaxy that should not hit either of the larger ones our solar system however is relatively safely parked near the middle zone of the galaxy"s arm if there are people alive at this time then it"s a good chance that they"ll notice nothing except possibly a change in visible star positions in truth the small section of the galaxy that we see with the naked eye would now change at all when galaxies collide it"s not an exceptionally violent and explosive thing gravity simply pulls different stars and planets into new positions over a long period of time only the highest powered space telescopes will be able to see any changes if they still exist still though the entire process of the Milky Way and Andromeda melding into each other in the vast expanse of space the Sun will still be in its death throes whether our solar system is shaken up or not the change is taking place in our nearby space neighborhood we"ll still most likely destroy all life as we know it in the grand scheme of universal existence the Sun is just one small star orbited by several planets of no real significance even in our own Milky Way galaxy there are thousands or even millions more probably very similar to the neighborhood solar system there"s nothing special about our Sun other than the fact that we need it to survive here on earth one day the Sun will run out of fuel expand to a gigantic size and then dwindle down to a relatively cold and tiny tired and old white dwarf star when this happens huge changes will take place in our solar system and beyond if humankind is lucky some of us will have figured out how to live off the planet by then so we do not become extinct and disappear into the vast nothingness of space [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music]
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