Unusual Moon Bases Documentary 2019 Colonisation of the Solar Systems Strangest Locations

Unusual Moon Bases Documentary 2019 Colonisation of the Solar Systems Strangest Locations

Ever since humankind began imagining traveling to other planets or out there amidst the stars, the idea of colonizing other celestial bodies has intrigued our minds. Most people focused on our nearest planetary neighbor, Mars, but with the current push further into space from NASA and private companies alike, the idea of landing on and colonizing Mars may not be the best option. When it comes to creating colonies within our solar system and for ideal conditions, including our biological need for liquid water, it makes more sense to look to the moons that orbit other planets. 

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[Music] [Applause] [Music] ever since humankind began imagining traveling to other planets or out there amidst the Stars the idea of colonizing other celestial bodies has intrigued our minds most people focused on our nearest planetary neighbor Mars in discussions about human colonization and leaving Earth for adventure increased natural resources and even saving our species Mars intrigues us and seems the most accessible with the current push farther into space from NASA and private companies alike the idea of landing on and colonizing Mars is right next door to reality the Red Planet is close and will probably get to it in the next few decades but it may not be the best option when it comes to creating colonies within our own solar system for ideal conditions including our biological need for liquid water it makes more sense to look to the moons that orbit other planets in fact the space community has already found incredible options for various moons of the solar system with potential for colonization or at least permanent bases that serve as stopping points for other missions to the Stars let"s explore the best chances that give humanity a chance at possible moon bases number one Europa one of the largest of the planet Jupiter"s moons has long been considered a viable option for life to exist elsewhere in our solar system although the idea of human colonization on this rocky sphere is quite intriguing there"s something even more amazing for astronomers to consider Europa has a thick layering of ice covering its entire surface scientists also believe that a huge liquid ocean lies just beneath it despite being covered with water scientists do know that Europa has a rocky center this makes it even a better candidate for human habitation due to what we know of its makeup currently there is some supposition that life already exists on Europa in the form of single-celled organisms microbes or even bacteria if they exist larger organisms may not be far behind in order to support human colonies however there does have to be exposed land or some type of building that can exist in the midst of all that ice and water also the water itself must have the proper chemical makeup of hydrogen and oxygen in order to support life as we know it if there"s evidence of the regular water cycle this would give a good indication that colonisation could work currently NASA scientists are hoping to figure out whether the rock and water on the moon interact chemically and thermally in a similar way to what happens on earth they also need to know of the reactions between the different materials on Europa create oxygen and where it"s stored some type of atmosphere or deep under the surface of the ice the more things are the same to what we know here on our planet the more likely colonization could be at the current rate of exploration and study a large chunk of Europa"s characteristics should be known by 2025 not only does NASA have to develop ways of gathering more information but they also need to track the data they collect over a long period of time to understand Jupiter"s moons properties and processes besides the water cycle they"re also looking for signs of volcanic activities that may introduce certain minerals and other compounds into the water closer looks at Europa can help NASA and private astronomers conduct research to learn more about the potential for eventual human habitation they have a vast array of different testing options currently in use or in development and they intend to use all they can to gather data some of these testing methods include magnetic sounding to determine the thickness of the ice layer and the ocean and radar technology to look below the frozen liquid outer layer and learn more about the core and its properties some of these detailed tests could even give them information about how much salt and mineral content is in the water number two Ganymede orbiting the largest planet in our solar system is the largest moon called Ganymede as well as being considerably larger than other planetary satellites this moon is unique in that it has its own magnetic field of course earth is surrounded by a magnetic field which changes the flow of solar particles and produces the very beautiful aurora borealis Ganymede has its own Aurora which would make living in a colony they"re quite beautiful if not comfortable the Aurora"s over Ganymede tell astronomers something interesting about the makeup of the moon unlike the ones that flow and shift across our sky quite actively Jupiter"s moon celestial light show stays put interestingly this seems to indicate that liquid water in large quantities exists under the icy exterior of this large moon something else in the sky around Ganymede intrigued scientists even more oxygen unlike the other moons of Jupiter and other planets in the solar system this moon has its own atmosphere unfortunately it"s quite thinner than the one that surrounds earth and allows us to live here without too much trouble even if the surface of the Moon was an appropriate temperature instead of incredibly frigid there would not be enough oxygen for us to breathe still the idea of human colonization on Ganymede is more possible than in many other places in our solar system even a thin atmosphere with oxygen and it could spark life into being if other necessary elements and compounds were present in the ice or ocean underneath it unlike moon"s farther out away from the Sun researchers found the ice coating here to be relatively thin and probably able to be breached what does this all mean for the possibility of human colonization with water oxygen and a magnetic field terraforming and building encapsulated bases would perhaps be easier here than anywhere else in space researchers from around the world have been studying Ganymede along with Europa and Callisto for many years the European Space Agency got permission in 2012 to build a craft that will reach it in 2022 whatever data comes back to us from that interesting journey will surely give a clear answer as to whether any of these three huge moons of Jupiter could possibly support human colonies or bases in the future number three Callisto when it comes to potentially habitable moons the biggest planet in the solar system also has the biggest number of possibilities Jupiter"s orbiting satellite Callisto is the second biggest behind Ganymede it"s about the same diameter as mercury which is the closest planet to the Sun as mentioned above it"s long been studied alongside that moon and Europa to learn more about its core surface atmosphere and whether it has any water on it or that it could support some form of life very similar to its larger neighbor Callisto is also covered with ice and has liquid ocean beneath that chilly outer crust this alone makes it very attractive possibly for human colonization in the future the ice layer on the surface of Callisto is not solid instead the frozen liquid covers first Plains in between rocky craters and ridges the fact that this moon has more available land visible might give it a certain edge over other moons on this list after all it would be much easier to build a base on solid ground than it would on a sheet of ice existing research and data collected from spacecraft that flew into the vicinity of this and the other large moons of Jupiter show that Callisto also has a minute mascara however instead of oxygen being the primary gas found there it"s mostly made up of carbon dioxide even more research of interest to astronomers indicate that this gas is coming from inside the moon the logical explanation for this is that the lightweight gas would not stick around in the atmosphere unless it was constantly being replenished from below there are some small amounts of information that seemed to point to small amounts of oxygen there to the presence of an atmosphere around Callisto makes it another reasonable possibility for future base building and colony setting while people cannot freeze carbon dioxide of course and the moon would be much too cold to survive on anyway having earth-like gases present there can give the first colonists or research astronauts that ever reach this place something to work with it"s not just the presence of carbon dioxide oxygen and water that pushes this one of Jupiter"s moons into the list of possible comedy sites instead of volatile internal combustion spewing geysers or evidence of geothermal or potentially volcanic activity Callisto is relatively stable and still also the radiation that streams from Jupiter would not affect greatly due to the distance between the two orbs both unique characteristics point to the possibility of surface construction rather than the need to build any type of colony outpost deep below the surface of the Moon in order to stay safe number four Titan one step in from Jupiter"s giant moon Europa is another potentially habitable place in our solar system this time the focus is on Titan which is one of Saturn"s many moons in fact it represents a very interesting opportunity for earth people to get off our own planet and try somewhere else for a while Titans atmosphere is not conducive to human life as we know it so gas tanks or other breathing apparatus would be necessary for people working and living on that moons colony also spacesuits of some type would be needed for thermal protection Titan hovers somewhere around negative 170 degrees Celsius or minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit however unlike other places in our celestial neighborhood colonists would not require pressurized suits to keep their bodies from coming apart in the vacuum of space this is due in part to Titans very similar gravity to a certain environment that humans have experienced before Earth"s moon just like the first man who walked on the moon could bound almost effortlessly across the surface people who lived or worked in a human colony on Titan could traveling this way walking would be rather awkward but scooting across the surface and some self powered vehicle would be a breeze not only is this moon of Saturn ridiculously cold but it"s also rather dark earth receives between 300 and a thousand times more light than tightened us the wide disparity in numbers has to do with titans thick cloud coverage unfortunately unlike earth these clouds are not made from ordinary water instead their noxious methane gases that will not help humanity survive in any way with inhospitable air a lack of water cold temperatures and dim light any colonization effort would require more artificial energy sources than Europa for example Titan intrigues astronomical scientists because of its proximity to Saturn and its unique topographical features in the future if people land on this faraway moon they can explore rivers and lakes of liquid methane mountain ranges that challenge those on earth and of course the amazing view of the ringed planet seen from our moon earth looks like a faraway Blue Marble Saturn"s seen from Titan would fill 1/3 of the sky number 5 Enceladus Titan is not the only moons orbiting Saturn that some people consider appropriate for future human colonization Enceladus one of the larger satellites of the ringed planet tops the list of other places in our solar system that may not only support life but already have it the similarities between some of the chemicals compounds and activities going on there mimic those that launched the beginning of life on Earth so closely the researchers believe things could already be underway up there for entirely new species what are these materials and mysterious processes that could create life on Enceladus when the Cassini spacecraft flew near Saturn it observed many of its moons took plenty of pictures and even collected samples of particles in the space surrounding them when it flew past Enceladus it noted that the surface of this moon was interrupted by geysers that were throwing ice crystals out into space the analyzation of some of these crystals found an intriguing combination of water nitrogen and organic carbon on earth water nitrogen and carbon were the original building blocks of life as they were mixed together with the solar energy that bombarded our young planet not much energy from the Sun reaches Enceladus however scientists believe that whatever energy creates these massive geysers could spark life into being of course because this moon is so far out into space the surface is covered with solid ice the idea that microorganisms or other hitherto unknown forms of life could lurk beneath its surface is highly interesting to space scientists although human colonization on this moon would have just as many hardships as on Titan Enceladus gives astronomers a more direct reason to establish a base there with a stronger possibility of life already existing there it makes sense to want to get down on the surface for further study the geysers themselves which form giant cracks or tiger stripes in the SiC by surface may provide a possible heat and energy source to help establish a scientific base on the moon through careful calculations and study they determine that the concentrated collection of thermal Jets create approximately as much heat as 20 power stations fuelled with coal this would be enough to establish some type of limited colony there before you or scientists get too excited about the idea of human colonization of Enceladus however it"s important to realize that the moon has virtually no atmosphere or gravity this would make it very difficult to build a structure travel around the moon"s surface or survive at all number six meanness like other gas giant planets in our solar system Saturn has multiple moons that could be a future site of human colonization or space bases NEMA switch has been coined the death star after the space station in the popular Star Wars franchise is another moon that was scanned by the spacecraft as it flew by the large planet it discovered quite a similar structure to the other large moons on this list mimas consists of rock ice and the potential for an underground liquid ocean again although water is so important when it comes to supporting life of any type it"s not the only thing that people need to successfully live in a location me miss shows no evidence of other life building compounds enough oxygen hydrogen or any carbon with which to create organisms of any kind however even on a seemingly dead world people can utilize the surface and the energy stored within to support some type of enclosed colony or base besides the already intriguing possibilities of what microorganisms could possibly grow in the vast body of water me miss exhibits and other characteristics that scientists find quite interesting Cassini recorded the moon while going back and forth rhythmically as it orbited Saturn the main accepted explanation for this movement suggests a large body of water or geological activity under the ice that covers the ground due to its proximity and similarity to the other moons around our solar system"s largest planets most researchers believe that rocking motion comes from water and not volcanic activity the measurement and scans suggest a 15 to 18 mile layer of ice that covers the ocean below well this seems to be a considerably thick layer to get through before we can utilize the water for base building it"s not insurmountable there is another possible reason why me misses rocking back and forth however and this one provides no benefits for humankind and our future designs on far-off moons for building colonies and settlements the moon could simply have an oddly shaped core that throws its balance off-center Saturn after all is a massive planet with the unique feature of the Rings that have their own gravitational pull with all that force working on Minas orbit an uneven core could definitely cause a wobble unfortunately none of these possibilities could be proven unless the spacecraft actually landed on the moon and conducted more in-depth studies these are the types of questions that make the plan to create human bases or colonies on other planets or moons extremely difficult before we can even entertain the thought of sending people to me miss for example so much more research needs to be done with interplanetary distances being as large as they are each research trip can take a decade or more number seven Miranda if you adjust your telescope and look even farther out into the dark reaches of space you"ll spy a moon orbiting Uranus that"s called Miranda although it"s smaller than this planet"s other four moons it offers the best chance at human colonization out of any of them one of the key features that scientists always look for when musing about the habitability of other planets and moons is the presence of ice Miranda has plenty of ice and in fact it seems to be at least halfway made of it some astronomers think it might be possible for liquid water to exist deep underneath but the data is supporting that is slim at present and the distance from the warmth of the Sun makes it less possible than four moons closer in despite the ice and the cold temperatures Miranda lacks an atmosphere so it has no protection from dangerous radioactive particles blasting into it at all times they"re drawn in by Uranus as gravity and magnetosphere one thing that makes some people believe Miranda could be the site of a human base is the that it"s surface has multiple large chasms on it scientific measurements have shown that they reach more than ten times farther into the moon than the Grand Canyon plunges into the surface of the earth with such deep spaces available it might be possible to construct a base out of the range of the radiation threat these chasms coupled with the idea of liquid water somewhere deep within Miranda point to the possibility of considerable geological upheaval or activity taking place within the center outside the range of the sun"s heat the only way any of the ice could melt into liquid would come from core heat or volcanism most scientists would not entertain this idea because there"s really not much evidence of it occurring compared to the closer in and more popular moons around the giant gas planets Uranus is smallest satellite does not get much attention a large human colony on Miranda remains a rather far-fetched idea however imagination provides what science does not yet allow some type of offereth base used for faraway space exploration may be an option in the far future these would require considerable strength protection and environmental handling miranda is quite small and lacks enough mass to create sufficient gravity for comfortable living for example if a person in a spacesuit traversing one of the chasm cliffs accidentally fell they would float down gently like a feather in the wind the lack of apparent danger from falls on Miranda however does little to a swash all the other definitely deadly characteristics of this far-off moon number eight Triton the world has not seen anything from Neptune"s biggest moon Triton since 1989 it was in that year when the Voyager 2 craft flew past that far-off planet and captured photographs of it and the moon surrounding although technology back then was not what it is today researchers still found quite a lot of information in those cold and colorless snapshots Triton consists of freezing rock and ice made out of nitrogen some markings on the surface seem to have given an indication that this moon also contain liquid water hidden deep beneath the frozen exterior the chance of it being livable is extremely slim however where there"s water scientists suggest that life could possibly exist given the right conditions and elements otherwise present besides the possibility of liquid water and nitrogen which are both important for the creation of life Triton austell is a very thin atmosphere there"s no way to tell what kind of gases are present in it however and it"s simply not thick or dense enough to really make any change to the habitability of this moon any way you look at it Triton is not one of the best choices for human colonization with temperatures around negative 390 degrees Fahrenheit this moon represents the coldest place ever discovered not only in our solar system but in the universe itself however if a research vessel was able to reach Neptune with scientists and builders onboard a highly fortified and technologically advanced base would afford quite an impressive opportunity to study the outer reaches of our solar system why is Triton more interesting than other frozen rocks and their incredibly long orbits around the Sun one unique characteristic of this moon is the presence of shiny or reflective planes scattered across the surface they look and act a bit like metal although scientists generally believe they"re a combination of nitrogen dust and water that"s erupted from deep beneath the surface to settle like ponds over the rocks and trees in place the thin atmosphere plays a role in this process because it has just enough force to push the mixture out smoothly another unique mystery that makes Triton spark the curiosity of researchers who study both Neptune and its moons is the odd difference between the two celestial bodies usually the rocky outer planets have moons that were created of the same materials that were long ago swirling through space and condensing into the generally spherical objects that they are now Triton however appears to be from somewhere else made from different materials and somehow pulled into Neptune"s relatively small gravitational field orbiting backward around it this moon also spins in the opposite direction of its planet although researchers cannot imagine why this would either help or hinder human colonization far in the future it is certainly a curious truth that warrants more investigation number 9 Charon far far out at the end of our solar system lies former planet Pluto and it"s five moons well the status of Pluto has been argued back and forth over the years its closest relative Charon has always been called a moon oddly enough it does not orbit Pluto like any other moons in the solar system do instead the two celestial orbs spin around a central point between them the reason for this is obvious from a mathematical standpoint Charon is a little more than half the size of Pluto which gives it a considerable amount of mass the competing gravitational pulls of one to another creates a fulcrum between the two rather than inside of the larger one this intriguing fact and many others were discovered when the New Horizons spacecraft flew past the dwarf planet and it"s relatively giant moon in 2015 the intriguing photograph showed interesting characteristics of both objects astronomers were surprised to determine that these surfaces of both objects were not as old as they should have been it seemed that Charon and Pluto came into being around the same time besides the relatively smooth outer surface Charon does have some cracks and craters scientists agree that it was not nearly enough to indicate how long they thought these two had orbited the Sun although the relatively young age of Pluto and Charon is interesting from a scientific standpoint the only benefit that could have for future space exploration and colonization is to suggest the possibility that the world would not be hit by asteroids as often as previously thought the photograph showed no signs of massive bombardments of space rock new horizons photographs did show possible evidence of lava tubes very similar to ones that have been on our own moon these may give future humans a convenient and safe place to talk a spaceport base or settlement also there is some indication that Sharon"s weak atmosphere may form on the interior and the gases released to the surface due to the geological activity an interesting history unique orbital path with its wharf planet and lava tubes definitely spark the interest of space researchers however the relatively small size and exceedingly cold temperatures on Charon make the idea of colonizing it almost ridiculous before that ever could possibly occur scientists would need to reach much closer moons around other planets right now the focus is primarily on Mars as the next point of exploration into our solar system however we cannot forget our closest celestial body that we see regularly have studied extensively and have even sent people to in the past number 10 the moon from all the way out in the frigid reaches of space attention turns back to our nearest neighbor in a list of the top 10 moons that may be suitable for human colonization or at least a space-based sometime in the future how could we possibly forget our own natural satellite our moon represents the obvious choice for the first step into off Earth civilizations after all people have already been there and walked on its surface with technology from over 40 years ago although current space projects focus more on getting to Mars than back to the moon heading there to dust off the American flag and read the plaque left there by the first to walk on its rocky surface is not outside the bounds of current technological possibilities our Moon which is called Luna will undoubtedly be the first spot humans colonize or build a base beyond the surface of Earth it just makes sense to start close to home before spreading out to other planets and moons across the solar system whether human colonization ever occurs there on a larger scale or if we simply build bases from which to launch other space missions is up for debate possibilities are quite intriguing instead of vague ideas dreams and intriguing possibilities however scientists have actually made considerable research into the idea NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay has long been a supporter of going back to the moon and exploring the possibility of constructing something on its surface he shares the opinion of many people interested in the space community that we have not been back to the moon yet simply because it cost too much and does not have any great benefits to offer in 2016 rumors trickled across the scientific world and into popular media that stated many astronomers and aerospace engineers believe it would be possible to build a base on the moon before 2025 scientists like McKay and others who support the idea seek to come up with a more affordable plan to get people back up there for more in-depth study and possible planning for a permanent structure technology advances all the time and much of what we now know and have can be used for such a mission as NASA for government space agencies and private corporations work hard developing technology that will soon put people on Mars their thoughts still turn to the long term dream of human colonization somewhere beyond Earth that dream is tempered with the obvious truth however that any functional colony is a long time in the future the first step is creating a moon base on our nearest space neighbor these projects alone will take many many years to complete including the greatest minds of this and future generations massive amounts of resources and money and an awful lot of energy to the space program is modestly funded compared to the past and while private companies are taking the reigns for a lot of the new developments so much more needs to be done if people ever have a dream to colonize far-off moons or planets building some type of base on our moon will represent a giant leap forward in humankind"s quest for spreading civilization and our influence across the world and to others will this happen in our lifetime while research and development teams explore the possibilities they look not to the far-off orbiting rocks of Ganymede Triton and Charon instead they look up as we all do to the reflective glow of the moon once humankind has conquered that next great feat the time will come to expand earthling influence throughout the solar system create more moon bases orbiting around other planets and eventually spread human colonization to all acceptable worlds what used to be firmly in the realm of science fiction is becoming closer to reality every day [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] 

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